Centrifugal Casting

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What is Centrifugal Casting?

Centrifugal casting provides high material soundness and is the metal casting process of choice for jet engine compressor casespetrochemical furnace tubesmany military and defense components, and other applications requiring high reliability.

In centrifugal casting molten metal is poured into a spinning die, which can rotate on a vertical axis (vertical centrifugal casting) or horizontal axis (horizontal centrifugal casting) depending on the configuration of the part. Ring and cylinder-type shapes are made by vertical centrifugal casting while tubular shapes are made by horizontal centrifugal casting. Either process can be used to produce multiple parts from a single casting. 

The high centrifugal force applied to the molten metal in the spinning die causes less dense material such as oxides and impurities to “float” to the inner diameter (I.D.) where they concentrate and are removed by machining. Solidification is managed directionally under pressure from the outer diameter (O.D.) to the I.D., avoiding mid-wall shrink. This results in a defect-free structure without cavities or gas pockets.

With the world’s largest and most diverse inventory of centrifugal dies, MetalTek minimizes both upfront tooling costs and product lead times for our customers. We can produce horizontal centrifugal castings with O.D. up to 60" (1,524 mm), length up to 432" (10,973 mm), and weight up to 125,000 lbs. (56,700 kg). Vertical centrifugal castings are available with O.D. up to 180” (4,572 mm) and weight up to 34,000 lbs. (15,422 kg). For a complete guide to centrifugal casting and how it works, visit our expert blog.    

See the videos to the right to learn more about centrifugal casting.

Net Shaped Centrifugal Casting

MetalTek also offers net-shaped centrifugal casting and near net-shaped centrifugal casting, hybrid processes that can provide more precise O.D. detail and lower machining costs than centrifugal casting alone. Both have measurable benefits compared to conventional castings, fabrications, or forgings.

Net-Shaped Centrifugal Casting

Net-shaped centrifugal casting combines centrifugal casting and investment casting. A wax mold is used to create a ceramic shell that is placed within a vertical die to centrifugally cast the part. With medium to high volumes, the relatively large upfront tooling cost is more than offset by lower machining costs.

Near Net-Shaped Centrifugal Casting

Near-net-shaped centrifugal casting is like net-shaped centrifugal casting but uses a sand mold while centrifugally casting the part. Tooling costs are lower than net-shaped centrifugal casting, but more machining may be needed for the required level of O.D. detail. This makes near-net-shaped centrifugal casting more appropriate for low to medium volumes.

Centrifugal Casting Videos

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When to Use Centrifugal casting

  • Symmetrical shapes

  • Sand casting material properties are inadequate

  • Centerline shrink is an issue using other casting processes

  • Limited I.D. features

  • Large parts of up to 125,000 lbs. (56,700 kg)

  • Net-shaping: more precise O.D. detail and lower machining costs are desired

  • Uniform grain structure

  • Dimensional integrity requirements

Centrifugal castings at MetalTek are produced at Wisconsin Centrifugal, and Sandusky International.

Vacuum centrifugal casting

Vacuum casting is used when limiting oxygen exposure is critical. It is often leveraged to take full advantage of the properties of high-performance alloys such as 718, 625, GTD222, and Rene77. Casting in a vacuum draws the molten metal into the die and limits the effects of oxidation, allowing more flow rate and temperature control than other processes. Developed in the 1980s, vacuum casting immediately began producing higher-reliability components with uniform soundness and tight tolerances that are often used in aerospace and military applications. MetalTek casts vacuum parts up to 18" x 42" (455 mm x 1,070 mm) and pour weights up to 800 lbs. (364 kg). 

Let the experts at MetalTek help you no matter where you are in your metal project journey. We can walk through the benefits and ideal casting method for your metal needs.


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